1. What are cookies?
Cookies are small pieces of data in text files that are stored on your computer or other device when websites are loaded in a browser. They are widely used to “remember” you and your preferences, either for a single visit (through a “session cookie”) or for multiple repeat visits (using a “persistent cookie”). They ensure a consistent and efficient experience for visitors, and perform essential functions such as allowing users to register and remain logged in. Cookies may be set by the site that you are visiting (known as “first party cookies”), or by third parties, such as those who serve content or provide advertising or analytics services on the website (“third party cookies”).
Both websites and HTML emails may also contain other tracking technologies such as “web beacons” or “pixels.” These are typically small transparent images that provide statistics, for similar purposes as cookies. They are often used in conjunction with cookies, though they are not stored on your computer in the same way. As a result, if you disable cookies, web beacons may still load, but their functionality will be restricted.
1.2 Legal framework
Clause 32 of the French Data Protection Act 2004-669 (Loi informatique et liberté) of 9 July 2004 governing electronic communications and audiovisual communication services requires that all users are informed clearly and comprehensively of the purpose of each type of cookie and the options available for blocking their installation.
We limit use of all cookies to a bare minimum. None of the cookies that we use gives us personally identifiable information.
2.1 “First party cookies”
We use “first party cookies” for a number of different purposes. Some cookies are necessary for technical reasons, some enable a personalised experience, and some allow us tracking visitor statistics. We use three main types of cookie, whose purposes are described below.
2.1.1 Analytics cookies
These are cookies that allow us to analyse the use and performance of our website, compile statistics, measure the volume of hits and usage for various components of our website (pages visited etc). This helps us to improve the relevance and user experience of our presentation (most visited pages and/or sections, most read articles etc).
2.1.2 Session cookies
These are cookies that identify your browser to the server, for example, to ensure continuity and security of each session. These cookies are deleted as soon as you leave our website.
2.1.3 Persistent cookies
These are the cookies that store certain data for a pre-defined length of time. For example, accepting cookie notice places a cookie on your computer so that the notice does not appear again for a while. These cookies remain on the your device until they expire or you delete them.
Express agreement to the installation of analytics, session or persistent cookies is not obligatory. This is because data generated by these cookies is used for statistical purposes and clear information is provided here regarding their nature, type and intended application.
2.2 “Third party cookies”
We use Google Analytics to track website activity such as session duration, pages per session, bounce rate etc of visitors using the site, along with the information on the source of the traffic. This is done in a personally anonymous way and is extremely useful to understand geographic distribution of our visitors and to identify poorly performing pages of our site.
You can opt out of Google Analytics by installing Google’s opt-out browser add-on.
3. Controlling cookies
To find out more on how to manage and delete cookies, visit aboutcookies.org. For more details on your choices regarding use of your web browsing activity for interest-based advertising you may visit the following sites: